SARS-CoV-2 outbreak is spreading worldwide. As a consequence of the new circumstances, almost all endoscopic units underwent in-depth reorganization involving patients’ selection. We analyzed the efficacy of the newly adopted endoscopic triage.
In March 2020, we monitored endoscopies to evaluate the effects of the novel selective triage aimed to reduce the number of investigations and viral spread/contagions. Clinical-demographic data of the patients, indications, type of endoscopy, endoscopic findings (subtyped in major and minor), finding rates (major and minor) and diagnostic yields (major findings) have been analyzed and compared to the endoscopic procedures performed in March 2019. Furthermore, patients were called at least 21 days after the endoscopy to evaluate the possibility of a Covid-19 onset.
Accordingly to the novel triage, the number of procedures dropped from 530 to 91 (−84%). The finding rates and diagnostic yields were 83% (74–89) vs 71% (66–73) (P 0.015) and 56% (46–65) vs 43% (38–47) (P 0.03) on March 2020 and March 2019, respectively. A significant increase of operative procedures has been reported in 2020, 34% vs 22% in March 2019. All the patients were recalled and neither cases of onset of Covid-19 like symptoms nor positive nasopharyngeal swabs PCR have been evidenced.
The novel endoscopic triage significantly reduced the number of procedures and increased finding rates and diagnostic yields. However, a careful schedule of canceled procedures should be applied to avoid to miss relevant pathologies. No Covid-19 onset or infection has been noted after endoscopies.
Although the impact of pancreatic infections in acute pancreatitis has been studied extensively, there are no population-based data on extrapancreatic infections and their potential relation to organ failure. We aimed to study the occurrence of pancreatic and extrapancreatic bacterial infections in acute pancreatitis and their relation to patient outcome.
Patients and methods
All patients with first-time acute pancreatitis from 2003 to 2012 in a defined area in Sweden were retrospectively evaluated. Data on acute pancreatitis severity, organ failure, infections, and in-hospital mortality were collected.
Overall, 304 bacterial infections occurred in 248/1457 patients (17%). Fifteen percent had extrapancreatic and 2% had pancreatic infections. The lungs (35%), the urinary tract (24%), and the bile ducts (18%) were the most common sites of extrapancreatic infections. Organ failure, severe acute pancreatitis, and in-hospital mortality were more common in patients with vs those without (pancreatic/extrapancreatic) infections (P < 0.05). Organ failure and severe acute pancreatitis occurred more frequently in pancreatic vs extrapancreatic infections (70% vs 34%, P < 0.001 and 67% vs 28%, P < 0.001), but in-hospital mortality did not differ between the two groups (7.4% vs 6.8%, P = 1.0). Both pancreatic and extrapancreatic infections were independent predictors of organ failure (P < 0.05). Out of culture-positive infections, 18% were due to antibiotic-resistant bacteria, without any significant difference between extrapancreatic vs pancreatic infections (P > 0.05). About two out of five infections were of nosocomial origin.
Extrapancreatic infections occurred in 15% and pancreatic infections in 2% of patients with first-time acute pancreatitis. Both pancreatic and extrapancreatic infections were independent predictors of organ failure, leading to increased mortality.