Bloodstream infections (BSIs) are a frequent and life-threatening condition in hospital settings worldwide (Laupland 2013; Magill et al. 2014; Kern and Rieg 2020). The routine detection method of BSI is blood culture, which is one of the most critical tasks performed by the clinical laboratory, as well as essential to establish an etiological diagnosis. The most common Gram-negative pathogens detected are Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Among Gram-positive pathogens, the most common are: Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus spp, and Streptococcus pneumoniae; and in yeasts: Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis, Candida krusei, Candida glabrata and Cryptococcus neoformans (Bassetti et al.
Rubella, sometimes known as German measles, is an infectious disease caused by the rubella virus, generally involving a mild febrile disease accompanied by rash and lymphadenopathy (Menser et al., 1978; Lambert et al., 2015). While rubella is mostly self-limiting and is asymptomatic for 25%–50% of infections, pregnant women infected in the first trimester can suffer a variety of complications, including miscarriage, stillbirth, and congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) (Panagiotopoulos et al., 1999; Lambert et al., 2015).
We thank to Pietro D L et al for their comments on our recently published article (Kilic et al., 2020). In previous studies, viral infections have been reported to have an important role in the etiology of sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL) (Cohen et al., 2014). Therefore, it is not unreasonable to think that COVID-19, as a viral infection, may also cause SSNHL. Moreover, recently, studies on the effects of SARS-CoV-2 virus on central and peripheral nervous systems have been published. Some of these studies have reported Guillain – Barré syndrome (Toscano et al., 2020) and impaired olfactory function (Eliezer et al., 2020) to be related to SARS-CoV-2.
2020 saw the emergence of a global pandemic, COVID-19, caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, which began in China and has since spread across the world. One of the most challenging questions to answer during the COVID-19 pandemic has been regarding the true infection-fatality rate (IFR) of the disease. While case-fatality rates (CFR) are eminently calculable from various published data sources (1) – CFR being the number of deaths divided by the number of confirmed cases - it is far more difficult to extrapolate to the proportion of all infected individuals who have died due to the infection because those who have very mild, atypical or asymptomatic disease are frequently left undetected and therefore omitted from fatality-rate calculations (2).
The first cases of the novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) were reported in late December 2019 in the city of Wuhan, Hubei province in the People’s Republic of China (Morawska and Milton, 2020).