Peripheral venous catheters (PVCs) constitute the initial intravenous (IV) access route for most patients as PVCs can be easily placed and are associated with low risk for complications (Elia et al. 2012; González López et al. 2014; Rickard et al. 2018). However, in patients requiring moderate- or long term IV therapy multiple PVC insertions may be necessary in order to complete therapy (Rickard et al. 2012, 2018; González López et al. 2014; Adams et al. 2016). Hence, central venous catheters (CVCs) are frequently inserted in these patients (Smith and Nolan 2013).
Nipah virus (NiV) is a highly pathogenic zoonotic paramyxovirus causing severe respiratory disease and encephalitis in Southeast Asia with high mortality (Luby and Gurley, 2012, Satterfield et al., 2016). It is a negative stranded RNA virus with a large genome of 18 Kb and is classified in the Henipaviruses genus of Paramyxoviridae family along with its close relatives: Hendra virus, Cedar virus and Mojiang virus (Rockx et al., 2012). NiV has an envelope with filamentous nucleocapsids containing a genome of six major structural proteins (N-P-M-F-G-L).
A plethora of respiratory viruses constantly circulate among human populations worldwide, and they are associated with clinical pictures ranging from common colds to severe pneumonia requiring hospitalization. Occasionally, the emergence of new respiratory viruses causes epidemics or pandemics (Sloots et al. 2008), since several of them have neuroinvasive capacities (Desforges et al. 2019), although rarely associated with isolated central nervous system (CNS) infection, except during outbreaks (Bookstaver et al.
Since the start of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) outbreak in December 2019 in Wuhan, China, the virus has rapidly spread and become a major public health concern all over the world (Van Elslande et al., 2020; Ong et al., 2020). As of July 1, 2020, the virus has caused more than 10 million confirmed infections and over 500,000 reported deaths (Organization, W.H., 2020). Currently, real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) testing is the main technique used for the diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection.
Since the first emerging in December 2019, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has spread rapidly around the world, infecting over 38 million people globally and resulting in 1,089,047 deaths as of October 15, 2020 (WHO, 2020). To bring an end to this health crisis, vaccines are under development, but they are likely 1–2 years away. It is thus very important to minimize person-to-person transmission.
The Philippines is endemic for Japanese encephalitis (JE) [1,2]. Caused by the JE virus, JE is transmitted primarily by Culex tritaeniorhynchus mosquitoes abound in rice paddies [3–5]. The cohabitation of animals with human settlements and increased irrigation of land, features that are commonly seen in an agricultural country, are considered factors associated with a high viral transmission [3,5]. In 2014, we conducted a systematic review and analyzed available surveillance data to assess the epidemiology of JE in the Philippines .
On July 1st, the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has affected around 10 million people, causing over 510,000 deaths . On the other hand, more than 3.4 million patients have recovered and many countries have gradually restarted their return to the new reality after the implementation of unprecedented non-pharmaceutical interventions such as national lockdowns . Spain has been one of the most affected countries, having reported its highest mortality in Madrid , which has increased by 161% since 2019 .
A novel coronavirus (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, SARS-CoV-2 ) has caused over 4761559 confirmed cases and over 317529 confirmed deaths worldwide as of May 20, 2020, 8:00 (https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019). Many of the symptoms caused by SARS-CoV-2 are similar to those caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), especially acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) (Li et al., 2020a). Previous studies have reported that ARDS is the primary cause of mortality and morbidity in intensive care units (ICUs) (Liu and Tan, 2020, Liu et al., 2020a, Liu et al., 2020b).