Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) represents a mild course in the majority of cases, but about one-fifth of the patients develop clinical complications, such as acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), severe thrombocytopenia, venous thromboembolism and a systemic hyperinflammatory response (Huang et al. 2020, Martincic et al. 2020). The latter disorder is accompanied by lymphopenia, decreased interferon-γ expression in CD4 + T cells and upregulated cytokine levels (e.g. interleukin-6, IL-6) that may lead to the development of a ‘cytokine storm’ in severe COVID-19 (Pedersen and Ho 2020).
The oxygen concentration between 20-21% is definitory for normoxia. On the contrary, hypoxic conditions are reached at low oxygen levels in organs, tissues and cells. The cellular response to hypoxia is mediated by the hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) transcription factor, which represents the key regulator of oxygen homeostasis, promoting cellular adaptation to reduced oxygen availability (Semenza, 2006; Wenger et al., 2005).
In spite of global efforts towards combatting malaria, this disease is still one of the major health issues in the world, especially in tropical countries. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimated that 219 million cases of malaria occurred worldwide in 2017, which claimed around 435,000 lives (WHO 2018). Indonesia, as a tropical country, suffers from malaria. The most common Plasmodium species in Indonesia were Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax with around 63% and 37% in 2017 respectively (WHO 2017).