Although many attempts have been made to augment the volume of the latissimus dorsi (LD) myocutaneous flap in breast reconstruction, only a few studies on the shaping of the LD flap to achieve a natural native breast have been conducted. We introduce our novel method to reconstruct a naturally shaped breast by combining an extended LD myocutaneous flap with immediate lipofilling.
The patients who underwent an immediate unilateral breast reconstruction with an extended LD myocutaneous flap and lipofilling were retrospectively reviewed. The extended LD myocutaneous flap in 180-degree rotation was combined with an immediate lipofilling procedure followed by suturing to reproduce the constant dimensions of a neobreast.
A total of 45 patients with a mean age of 46 years and an average body mass index of 23.1 kg/m2 were enrolled. The average weight of the mastectomy specimens was 299.0 g. An average 18.8 × 8.7-cm skin paddle within the flap was harvested, and 71.0 mL of fat was injected into the flap. Donor site seroma was found in 9 patients, and no flap or fat necrosis was found.
Our technique of extended LD muscle flap with lipofilling reproduced breasts with constant dimensions and appropriate width, height, and projection. Shaping the LD muscle flap is not difficult or unpredictable. This is a simple and easy technique to shape the LD flap and will provide surgeons with an additional autologous option for breast reconstruction.
Various techniques for the aesthetic correction of short noses have been described, but the selection of the adequate graft material remains controversial. Previous reports have mainly focused on the application of septal cartilage or alloplastic materials for short nose elongation, but the lengthening effect is often unsatisfactory for severe short noses. We propose costal cartilage as an alternative treatment for short noses, describe the technique, and discuss outcomes, patient selection, and complications based on our 15-year experience.
From February 2004 to December 2018, 611 patients with varying degrees of short noses were included in this retrospective study. All patients underwent nose elongation surgery using a costal cartilage graft. Nasal length before and after surgery was measured based on a 3-dimensional simulation technology. Outcomes and complications including possible underlying reasons were analyzed. Patient satisfaction was evaluated using a self-assessment survey.
Nasal elongation using costal cartilage was successfully achieved, with a mean increase in nasal length of 4.06 ±0.79 mm. Patients were followed up for a period of 8.5 months on average, ranging from 6 months to 8 years. Follow-up examinations demonstrated stable results. The overall complication rate was 3.8%. Complications included infection, implant extrusion, migration, deviation, visibility, prominence, and reddening of the nasal skin. Most patients (95.2%) rated their outcome as improved and much improved.
Nasal elongation using costal cartilage grafting is an effective therapeutic approach for patients with severe short noses. Reliable outcomes and the use of autologous tissue along with minimal donor site morbidity contribute to the high patient acceptance. Meticulous surgical technique and careful patient selection are prerequisites for successful results.
Complete or near circumferential defects over wrist and hand are difficult situations. They need flaps so long that available adjacent, distant or free flaps often seem inadequate. Hence, this innovative solution was designed. Twin axial flaps were elevated along an oblique axis over abdomen, extending in opposite directions while being pedicled and pivoted at about the same transverse plane. The flaps wrapped the limb from either side and gave complete coverage. Donor sites were closed directly or skin grafted. Three weeks later flap division was done, often after a delay procedure. The technique was used in 6 cases. All patients were young males with history of electrical burns or trauma resulting in total or near circumferential defect. Required length of flaps ranged from 15 to 26 cm with length/breadth ratio ranging from 3:1 to 5:1. Double abdominal flaps could cover all the exposed structures. Limb positioning was comfortable. All flaps survived; all limbs were salvaged. The cover was soft, supple, and pinchable. This is a simple yet effective flap design to address the difficult problem of circumferential defects at hand. The conceptualization and success of this flap system may be attributed to the understanding of patterns of cutaneous vasculature discovered by Ian Taylor. When the vascular axes in a region are known, the same can be exploited to design more than 1 flap in desired orientation. In conclusion, this “Undulate-design Double Abdominal flaps Insertion-Pouch for Upper limb Reconstruction” is a new and effective solution for circumferential defects of wrist and hand.